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Status of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis and Therapeutic Options in Dairy Cows of Tehsil Jhang

Muhammad Bilal, Amar Nasir*, Abdul Shakoor, Usman Waheed, Rafaqat Ali, Arbab Sikandar
Correspondence: amar.nasir@uvas.edu.pk
Ever increasing human population is raising the need for human food manifold. Dairy animals, particularly dairy cows are serving as one of the important resource in meeting the threatening challenge of providing balanced diet to the consumers and thus play a pivotal role in the economy of the country. Cows; like others animal species, are also affected by naturally occurring infectious and non-infectious ailments. Ketosis, is the one of the most important non-infectious metabolicdisorder of milking animals, particularly bovines. It is a systemic state of increased in ketones (with lowered glucose) level that occurs in dairy cows leading to low milk production because of high need of glucose in milk during lactation ensuing in low body calcium level and lack of energy. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, efficiency of diagnostic methods and treatment of subclinical and clinical ketosis by using the Glucometer, Free Style Optium Neo®,and JusChek® urine strips in the selected areas of Tehsil Jhang, Pakistan. Furthermore, serum biochemical profile was also evaluated. This work was conducted during February to June, 2018.
A total of 120 blood and urine samples were collected from the recently calved (up to 2 months post-calving) dairy cows , in and around Tehsil Jhang. The blood samples were taken through Coccygeal and Ear vein venipuncture with a sterilesyringe and used freshly for the detection of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies were detected using Freestyle Optium Neo®glucometer kit through blood. One drop of blood after collection from coccygeal vein or ear vein was applied on the strip placed in the blood meter and the result was displayed as BHBA concentration in mmol/ after 10 seconds on digital monitor displaying the level of ketone bodies. The values indicated the presence or otherwise about ketosis. The threshold level for subclinical ketosis was (1-1.4 mmol/L) while the level above this was clinical ketosis in which clinical signs also appear. The remaining blood sample was preserved in the vacutainer tube containing gel and clot activator for serum bio chemical profile of calcium, phosphorus and cholesterol. For detecting urine ketone bodies, urine sample was collected in a falcon tube, and then immediately strip was dipped in to sample and the results were recorded after 40 sec. Cows found positive for Ketosis (Clinical and subclinical) were treated using different treatment protocols. The animals in Group A (10cows) were injected Dextrose 25% @ 5ml/Kg b/w (Shridhar, 2009) for two days along with Glycerin 200 g Per Oral for 5 days. In Group B(10cows), Glucocorticoid Dexamethasone was administered at 5–20 mg/dose, IM as well as Propylene glycol 300 gram/day for 2 days P/ O.In control group(Group C), (10 cows) Inj Normal saline 1000 ml was infused i/v for two days.Data relating to prevalence was analyzed by using Chi-square test while paired T-test and One way ANOVA were applied to the serum biochemistry and therapeutic efficacy, respectively. The overall prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows on the basis of BHBA level through Free Style Optium Neo® in Cows was 31.6±8.3% while, prevalence in different breeds of Cows i.e. Cross breed and Sahiwal was 35.71± 11.2% and 26±4.4%,respectively.The association of age with ketosis was evident by highest prevalence of 42.5%in 8-10 years old cows .The co-existence of ketosis with mastitis, metritis and retained placenta was31.5%,18.4% and 23.6%, respectively. While area wise prevalence according to rural, urban and peri-urban areas was 37.33%, 15% and 28%, respectively. BHBA level decreased with treatment while on the other hand, plasma glucose level increased. The cholesterol level also decreased towards normal with treatment. Although, the blood calcium level did not decrease much since the bones of animals act as source of calcium. Phosphorus level was also low during ketosis which increased after treatment. While, the most accurate method for ketosis detection is the blood BHBA concentration but it is very costly and time-consuming. The urine ketone analysis with JusChek® is an applicable On-farm test, which provide very good results with high sensitivity at 1 mmol/L and higher.
Dextrose 25% (Shahzeb Pharma Pvt. Ltd Pakistan) and glycerin (Sarco Industries, Multan-Pakistan) was found 95±0.0% effective against subclinical and clinical ketosis. The milk production gradually began to improve on day 4 with this therapeutic regimen in 21 animals which recovered on 7th day post-treatment. While, injection dexamethasone (Venus Pharma Pvt. Ltd. Pakistan) along with propylene glycerol was employed in 7 animals and the milk production rehabilitated slowly than first group. While, 2 cows in this group did not restore milk production So, efficacy of this protocol drugs was lesser. The present study provided an insight regarding the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis in and around Tehsil Jhang and providedbest therapeutic regimen for treatment of ketosis in dairy cows.

August 2, 2018

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